These two chapters of the monograph, written by the 9th Reconnaissance Wing's historian, provide an overview and assessment of U-2 operations in Desert Storm. Prior to the full establishment of the Defense HUMINT Service in 1995, each of the military services conducted human intelligence collection efforts in support of their departments. This portion of the 1991 fiscal year history for the Army's chief intelligence officer, summarizes some of the contributions of Army overt HUMINT operations, including those related to Desert Storm.
Document 12: Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Annual Historical Review, 1 October 1990 to 30 September 1991, 1993. For years the most significant military service HUMINT effort, including both clandestine and overt HUMINT, was conducted by the U. According to the history, the collection of information from Iraqi émigrés and defectors provided valuable information with regard to the targeting of Iraqi military facilities as well as avoidance of the inadvertent targeting of certain non-military facilities. S.-led coalition, along with the minimal casualties suffered, in the Persian Gulf war caught the attention of the military leadership of a number of countries.
Document 7: Air Force Space Command, Desert Storm "Hot Wash" 12-, July 1991. This 9-page assessment examines space operations during Desert Storm with respect to nine different areas, including weather support, satellite communications (SATCOM), navigation, use of multi-spectral imagery, tactical ballistic missile warning, and satellite repositioning.
Each page focuses on one area, and includes observations, discussion, lessons learned, and recommended actions.
On February 24, coalition ground forces begin their attack.
On February 27, Kuwait City was declared liberated, and with allied forces having driven well into Iraq, President Bush and his advisers decided to halt the war.This briefing book primarily focuses on the intelligence, space operations, and Scud-hunting aspects of the war.It also includes a report describing how Desert Storm affected China's view of future warfare, a document that raises questions as to what lessons other nations have drawn from U. military engagements in the Middle East and the Balkans.Destruction of Iraq's mobile Scud forces proved far more difficult than expected, in part due to Iraqi tactics.At war's end there had been no confirmed kills of mobile Scuds.The assessment notes, inter alia, that satellite communications were indispensable but SATCOM radios/channels were stressed by a "flood of communications," that the Global Positioning System (GPS) provided navigation updates to virtually every weapon system in the theater, the need for wide area multi-spectral imagery, and that Defense Support Program satellites, originally designed to detect strategic ballistic missiles, were effective in detecting Scud launches.Document 8: Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Assessment, Mobile Short-Range Ballistic Missile Targeting in Operation DESERT STORM, November 1991. During the Persian Gulf War Iraq fired 88 Iraqi-modified Scuds at Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain. C., January 17, 2001 – On the morning of August 2, 1990 the mechanized infantry, armor, and tank units of the Iraqi Republican Guard invaded Kuwait and seized control of that country. On August 20 President Bush signed National Security Directive 45, "U. Policy in Response to the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait," outlining U. objectives - which included the "immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait," and the "restoration of Kuwait's legitimate government to replace the puppet regime installed by Iraq." A U. ultimatum, Security Council Resolution 678, followed on November 29, 1990.The invasion triggered a United States response, Operation DESERT SHIELD, to deter any invasion of Kuwait's oil rich neighbor, Saudi Arabia. It stipulated that if Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein did not remove his troops from Kuwait by January 15, 1991 a U. Early in the morning of January 17, Baghdad time, the U.But the program continued, and involved both peripheral reconnaissance missions as well as overflights of some nations, including China and Cuba.In Operation Desert Storm, the U-2 overflights of Iraq provided a large quantity of imagery.