This colossal rebuilding program introduced new urban institutions and technologies such as hired cabs and street lighting, and democratized considerable spaces such as the boulevard and the public park, which became the setting for new modes of experience.2 It is therefore not surprising that Baudelaire should equate modernity with "the ephemeral, the fugitive, the contingent".3 A certain awareness of the horrifying contrasts brought about in this modern society, "the spectacle of fashionable life and of thousands of roaming existences - criminals and kept women - drifting about in the undergrounds of a great city",4 is clear in writings from as early as 1846. Pinkney, Napoleon III and the Rebuilding of Paris, (Yale, 1972), quoted in F. Interestingly, the aforementioned Baudelairean elucidation of beauty as the sum of two opposite yet crucially complementary elements appears as a middle ground stemming from the opposition occurring in the French art world at the time between the Romantic ideal of 'Art for Art's sake', and the belief that art should act as an austere and objective reflection of actuality, championed by the Realist movement.12 While Baudelaire dismissed excessively idealized art as being "beyond our powers of digestion or appreciation, neither adapted nor suitable to human nature"13; the utmost importance he placed on the artist's faculty of imagination, "by which he penetrates beyond the banality of observable appearances"14, also defied the precepts of Realism. 12 12 See Courbet, Le Courrier du dimanche, (September 1st, 1861), in which he defines Realism as the antithesis of Romantism. Indeed, among the crowd portrayed here, one could distinguish figures from contemporary Parisian society such as the composer Jacques Offenbach, the painter Fre? ric Bazille, Baudelaire, and the painter himself, clothed in fashionable crinolines and top hats, and engaged in a just as fashionable activity. 4 concerts, which were given twice a week in the Tuileries, for the bourgeoisie of the Second Empire to enjoy.
This idea of modernity as a fleeting quality, whose immediacy places it forever in the 'now' of its own epoch, is, however, a vital half of Baudelaire's definition of beauty as a composite entity, "whose other half is the eternal and the immutable":5 Beauty is always and invariably of a double composition [...] made up of an eternal, invariable element, whose quantity it is excessively difficult to determine, and of a relative, circumstantial element.6 Applied to art, and more specifically to the painting of the modern world, these two key definitions of beauty and modernity form the basis for a new set of criteria to be met by Baudelaire's ideal painter in order to 1 'The Painter of Modern Life' contains several essays written in 1860 and published in 1863 in Le Figaro. Frascina, Modernity and Modernism: French Painting in the Nineteenth Century, Yale University Press in association with The Open University, (New Haven and London, 1994), pp. Baudelaire, The Painter of Modern Life and Other Essays, Phaidon, (London, 1995), p. Baudelaire, Ouvres Comple`tes, Gallimard, Bibliothe`que de la Ple? The artistic space envisaged by Baudelaire's modernity, was consequently so novel in the early 1860s, that it can, in a sense, be interpreted as prescient, a reasoned speculation on the impending 7 See Baudelaire on 'The Salon of 1845' in Selected Writings on Art and Artists, Cambridge University Press, (London, 1981). 12 9 Frascina, Modernity and Modernism: French Painting in the Nineteenth Century, p. The title is in fact a direct evocation of the actual 15 See Baudelaire on 'The Salon of 1845' in Selected Writings on Art and Artists. The contemporaneous atmosphere of the Tuileries gardens would have been observable even in features such as the iron chairs in the foreground of the painting, the previous wooden ones having been replaced the very same year.
Baudelaire delves deeper into the essence of a flaneur, describing it somewhat as a person driven by curiosity.
One who is hungry for knowledge and experiences, in constant pursuit of the unknown.
A cursory observation of Whitman’s persona reveals that he is ‘a man of the world’; he professes to contain ev... A final analysis of the poem as a whole reveals that the persona can be considered flaneur again due to the manner in which he relates the poem to us the readers.
The poem is told in what feels like chunks of recollected experiences, quite pell-mell, much like how Monsieur G. The persona in song of myself maintains a duality; he is a flaneur while not being flaneur according to Charles Baudelaire’s definition in The painter of Modern Life. Charles Baudelaire (1821-67) was a leading poet and novelist in nineteenth who also devoted a considerable amount of his time to criticism.Indeed it was with a Salon review that he made his literary debut: and it is significant that even at this early stage - in 1845 - he was already articulating the need for a painter who could depict the heroism of modern life.The painter of modern life -- The life and work of Eugène Delacroix -- Edgar Allan Poe: his life and works -- Further notes on Edgar Allan Poe -- Wagner and Tannhäuser in Paris -- On the essence of laughter -- Some French caricaturists -- Some foreign caricaturists -- A philosophy of toys -- Philosophic art. We apologize for any inconvenience, and thank you for your visiting.Whitman’s persona in Song of Myself undoubtedly has an abundance of experiences to share, and is therefore indeed an observer of the world; a man of the world, but whether he has pursued these experiences with the attitude, curiosity and hunger characteristic of a flaneur or merely had them by means of existing hinders his qualification to be flaneur. Much of the definition being communicated through the behavior and characteristics of his main character Monsieur G. who he describes as ‘a man of the whole world, a man who understands the world and the mysterious and lawful reasons for all its uses…’(Baudelaire 7). These factors, along with others, may force us to perceive the flaneur as a loafer. The persona in Song of Myself by Walt Whitman teeters on the line of ‘he is flaneur’ versus ‘he is not flaneur’, in accordance with Baudelaire’s definition that is. Modern implies things new and different (from the past), and hence suggests a subtle semantic rejection of the past.In this small book, Baudelaire declared his breaking off from the classical past, especially the neo-classical style painting.