Review Of Related Literature About School Bullying

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Electronic communications allows perpetrators to maintain anonymity, access to a wide audience and 24/7 attainability.

In addition, private nature of the communication devoid of non-verbal quos makes cyber-bullying different from traditional bullying.

Studies reporting the outcomes of cyber-bullying in healthy teenagers (13-19 years of age) were included whereas studies reporting psychological outcome in relation to other pathologies, victims primarily being older than 19 years of age and outcomes in mentally disabled subjects were excluded from the study.

The nature of harassment ranges from ignoring, disrespecting, threatening, calling names, spreading rumors, email bombing, picking on and ridiculing [4] to hiding names while sending SMS or when in a chat room, kicking someone out of a chat room, and violating the privacy of someone by a webcam [5].

Bullying behavior continues to be a salient social and health-related issue of importance to educators, criminal justice practitioners, and academicians across the country.

While discourse on school bullying is abundant, previous studies are limited in explaining the predictive effect of factors such as individual/demographic variables, school environmental variables, and school antibullying preventive measures.Keywords: Cyber-bully; Teenagers; Effects; Perpetrators; Victims Cyber-bullying interactions are usually defined as “repeated, harmful interactions which are deliberately offensive, humiliating, threatening, and power assertive, and are enacted using electronic equipment, such as cell (mobile) phones or the Internet, by one or more individuals towards another” [1].It might be a continuation of real life bullying but can also exist on its own [2].Perpetrators may feel reduced responsibility and accountability leaving victims more vulnerable [6-8].According to studies there was no correlation between age and cyber-bullying (p=0.39) [1].Yet these studies found that individual demographic factors (e.g., age, gender, and race) and school characteristics (e.g., presence of gangs at school, and police/school staff members’ supervision) are significantly related to victimization. [17] found that victims of school bullying are more likely to be younger and white and to report the presence of gangs in their schools.Most previous research on bullying, however, suffers from several limitations.Males were more likely to cyber-bully others than females (p=0.021) [9].Only 43.6% of cyber-bullies thought that their bullying behavior was harsh to very harsh on the victims (Cyber victims: 66.4%), similarly, only 26% thought their actions had an impact on their victim’s life (Cyber victims: 34.6%).Using a nationally representative sample of 12,987 private and public school students in the United States, the current study examines school safety measures and students’ perceptions about school environments (or climate), especially school rules and punishment.Findings reveal that the variables of security guards, fairness and awareness of school rules, gangs and guns at school, students misbehaving, and teachers’ punishment of students were statistically significant predictors of bullying victimization.

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