Research Paper On Water Crisis

Research Paper On Water Crisis-11
Municipal water supplies would largely be switched off, and residents would have to rely on 149 water collection points around the City to collect a daily ration of 25 litres of water per person.Water supply would be maintained in the City's CBD, in informal settlements (where water is already collected from central locations) and to essential services such as hospitals.At the time of the announcement, "Day Zero" was projected to take place on 22 April 2018, but soon thereafter this was revised to 12 April.

Municipal water supplies would largely be switched off, and residents would have to rely on 149 water collection points around the City to collect a daily ration of 25 litres of water per person.

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Decreasing rainfall trends are linked to broader changes in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation, including the poleward shift of the Southern Hemisphere moisture corridor between 2015-17, displacement of the jet-stream and an expansion of the semi-permanent South Atlantic high pressure system.

2017 was the driest year since 1933, and possibly earlier, since comparable data before 1933 was not available.

In 2015, the City of Cape Town won a prestigious international award recognising their efforts at Water Conservation and Demand Management (WCWDM).

Cape Town was particularly successful at reducing water loss through leaks, with a water loss rate of 14 per cent, compared to a national average of 35 per cent.

Phase 1 compromising "water rationing through extreme pressure reduction" was implemented immediately.

In Phase 2, post "Day Zero", water would have been shut off to most of the system except to places of key water access.

Good winter rains in 2018 resulted in dam levels rising, but the national Department of Water and Sanitation announced that bulk water restrictions would remain in place until levels reached 85 per cent. In November, restrictions were reduced to Level 3, or 105 litres per person per day.

Under Level 3 restrictions, municipal water may be used to water gardens at certain times, using a watering can or bucket but not a hose, to wash cars using a bucket, and to top up swimming pools as long as the pool is fitted with a cover to prevent evaporation.

The immediate cause of the water crisis was the extreme drought from 2015-2017 that exceeded the planning norms of the Department of Water and Sanitation.

Research on long-term weather data done by the Climate System Analysis Group at the University of Cape Town determined that the low rainfall between the years 20 was a very rare and extreme event.

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