Prostaglandin Sythesis Induced By Snake Venom

PFA was purchased from Electron Microscopy Sciences (Hatfield, PA, USA).

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The biogenesis of LDs is a tightly regulated process in which lipid homeostasis-related transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), play a key role.

Activated PPARs upregulate the uptake of free fatty acids by increasing the expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36 [11, 12] and LD formation through increased expression of LD-associated proteins, such as PLIN2.

MT-III, a snake venom GIIA s PLA2, which shares structural and functional features with mammalian GIIA s PLA2s, activates macrophage defense functions including lipid droplet (LDs) formation, organelle involved in both lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes.

Macrophages (MΦs) loaded with LDs, termed foam cells, characterize early blood vessel fatty-streak lesions during atherosclerosis.

DMSO and BSA were obtained from Amresco (Solon, OH, USA).

RPMI 1640, thiocarbohydrazide, and Os O were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. PLIN2 antibody, Alexa Fluor 488 antibody, and iodide propidium were purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Sao Paulo, S. GA, TG, and all salts used were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited., but the molecular mechanism underlying its proinflammatory action is not fully understood.

These enzymes are able to release fatty acids from cell membranes, leading to subsequent production of lipid mediators.

GW9662, GSK0660, and A922500 were purchased from Merck KGa A (Darmstadt, HE, Germany).

TMP-153 and 15-d-PGJ2 antibody were obtained from Cayman Chemical (Ann Arbor, MI, USA).


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