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There must be such a reality because something can be an appearance only if it is the appearance of something.The problem now is to show how such things as appearance, evil, finite objects, error, time, and space are related to and are compatible with this Absolute. His speculation, strongly influenced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, was highly metaphysical; and his intention was to arrive at ultimate truths about the universe as a whole.
In one of his arguments against this view, Bradley grants that secondary qualities are mere appearances because he wishes to show that the same thing is true of primary qualities.
If an object has secondary qualities, even though they are relative to the perceiver, they must have some ground in the object.
The structure of Bradley’s argument, which often recurs in this section of the book, can be stated as follows: Some opponent maintains that Bradley maintains that there are three fundamental properties of reality: logical, epistemological, and metaphysical.
The logical character of reality is that it does not contradict itself.
The study of metaphysics teaches that either of these solutions is too simple, that both are peremptory.
“There is no sin, however prone to it the philosopher may be,” Bradley says, “which philosophy can justify so little as spiritual pride.” is divided into two parts.According to Bradley, “Truth is the object of thinking, and the aim of truth is to qualify existence ideally.” Furthermore, “Truth is the predication of such content as, when predicated, is harmonious, and removes inconsistency and with it unrest.” However, a truth is never wholly adequate. Therefore, every truth is a partial truth and is capable of being expanded and extended indefinitely toward more truth.If one can account for truth, one must also account for error.In the preface to , Bradley describes metaphysics as “the finding of bad reasons for what we believe on instinct, but to find these reasons is no less an instinct.” He warns the reader that many of the ideas he presents must certainly be wrong, but because he is unable to discover how they are wrong, others will have to be critical of his conclusions.If metaphysics is so liable to error, why should Bradley bother to study it, much less write more than six hundred pages about it?Before the question of the Absolute can be settled, truth must be defined. Bradley says that every real thing has at least two properties, existence and characteristics. However, to be able to say something is, one must have ideas, and through judgment, an idea is predicated of a real subject.Existence, then, is contained in the subject, and the predicate contains an ideal character that it relates to the real subject.In the first part, “Appearance,” Bradley deals with some of the recurring problems of philosophy, such as quality, relation, space, time, causation, and self.His general intention was to show that these problems have been formulated in such a way that no determinate solution can be found for them, that the world viewed from their perspective is contradictory and, therefore, appearance.The division of the properties of objects into primary or secondary qualities turns out on close examination to be mistaken.This division, which has seemed real to many philosophers, is merely an appearance.