Methane Chemosynthesis

Methane Chemosynthesis-40
1c) and another tree constructed using transcriptome sequences of representative members of Mytilidae (Fig.1d) showed that, within the genera used, Modiolus is the closest shallow-water relative of Bathymodiolus.

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A phylogenetic tree constructed using 375 single-copy orthologues from 11 lophotrochozoan species (Fig.Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago.Many gene families, especially those for stabilizing protein structures and removing toxic substances from cells, are highly expanded in B.platifrons, indicating adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. platifrons is considerably more complex than that of other lophotrochozoan species, including M.philippinarum, with substantial expansion and high expression levels of gene families that are related to immune recognition, endocytosis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in the gill, revealing presumed genetic adaptation of the deep-sea mussel to the presence of its chemoautotrophic endosymbionts.Using the lophotrochozoan tree as a reference, the time of divergence between B. philippinarum was estimated to be around 110.4 million years ago (Ma), with a 95% confidence interval of 52.4–209.7 Ma (Fig.2b), which is close to the upper age limit of deep-sea symbiotic mussels (102 Ma) previously estimated using five genes.3a), potentially owing to recurrent population bottlenecks as a result of population extinction and re-colonizationa,b, Shell of the deep-sea mussel B.platifrons (a, 10.7 cm) and shallow-water mussel M. c, Phylogenetic tree of 11 lophotrochozoan species based on genome data; the value of bootstrap support is shown at each node.platifrons are the HSP70 family (179 proteins) and the ABC transporters (393 proteins).HSP70 is important for protein folding, and thus high expression of these genes in the gill ( Supplementary Fig.


Comments Methane Chemosynthesis

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