Health Promotion Essays On Smoking

Health Promotion Essays On Smoking-10
Johanne Harvey, Nicholas Chadi; Canadian Paediatric Society, Adolescent Health Committee Paediatr Child Health 2016;21(4):209-14 Canada has witnessed a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in recent years.

Johanne Harvey, Nicholas Chadi; Canadian Paediatric Society, Adolescent Health Committee Paediatr Child Health 2016;21(4):209-14 Canada has witnessed a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in recent years.

Campaigns to inform the public of these risks, combined with smoking legislation regulating age of access and smoking in public places, have led to a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in Canada.

Despite these efforts, thousands of young Canadians continue to take up smoking every year.

Smoking kills more than 37,000 Canadians each year – six times more than vehicle collisions, suicides, homicides and AIDS combined.

Also, with the increasing popularity of electronic (e-)cigarettes, nicotine dependence remains an important and timely topic.

Also, data from a 12-year Canadian longitudinal cohort investigation suggest that:[26]Several studies looking at the impacts of early smoking initiation on the developing teenage brain have shown that nicotine induces persistent changes in neural connectivity in several brain areas, including the nucleus accumbens, the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, all of which are involved with emotion regulation.[27] Adolescent smokers appear to be more sensitive to the rewarding effects of nicotine.

They are also vulnerable to nicotine-elicited changes on synaptic interconnections, leading to higher risks for addiction and affective disorders in adulthood.[28]Chronic nicotine use in adolescence has also been shown to induce epigenetic changes that sensitize the brain to other drugs and increase the risks for future substance use.[29] Important individual differences appear to exist, such that some adolescents are at higher risk than others for smoking initiation, maintenance and nicotine-related neurological effects.[30] Studies conducted in animals suggest that nicotine consumption in adolescence increases impulsivity and decreases attention performance in the long term.[31] Many questions remain unanswered but health care providers should inform young smokers that the effects of nicotine on the adolescent brain are deleterious and long-lasting.

For more information, see the CPS statement “E-cigarettes: Are we renormalizing public smoking? Strategies to prevent smoking initiation in children and adolescents are reviewed in the present position statement, with focus on interventions that can be performed in the health care setting.

Approaches to managing smoking cessation in adolescents are discussed in the practice point “Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents”, also published in this issue.

A higher proportion of youth smokers 15 to 18 years of age buy their cigarettes in stores themselves, while almost one-half (44%) receive them for free from family, friends or other people.

Of note, a substantial percentage in this age group (16%) report getting their cigarettes from ‘other’ sources, which include cigarettes purchased from friends and contraband suppliers.

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