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According to one estimate, approximately one quarter of the potential net primary production has been converted by humans, either through direct cropping (53%), land-use-induced productivity changes (40%) or human-induced fires (7%) ( A ) ( 13 ).While such figures should be treated with caution, they do give an indication of the substantial impact of humans on natur al ecosystems.
It says that more than 100 people have been arrested for crop burning and that hundreds of factories have been shut down for not having proper emission-control equipment.
The Lahore traffic police say that they have collected more than $50,000 in fines in recent days from drivers whose vehicles did not meet emissions standards and that two centers have been set up for checking commercial vehicles for compliance.
The problem is not limited to the city; in 2015, according to a World Health Organization estimate, almost 60,000 Pakistanis died from the high level of fine particles in the air, one of the world’s highest death tolls from air pollution.
For years, Pakistani environmentalists have referred to November, when crop burning, higher emissions and cold weather combine to blanket Lahore and the rest of Punjab Province with acrid smog, as a “fifth season.” As in India, which Punjab borders, the problem seems to be growing worse, and this month it has reached what many Pakistanis are calling a crisis point.
The links between climate change, poverty and political and security risks and their relevance for Europe have been extensively analysed( 6 )( 7 )( 8 ).
Biodiversity has continued to decline globally despite a few encouraging achievements and increased policy action ( 9 ) ( 10 ).
Loss of biodiversity in other regions of the world affects European interests in several ways.
It is the world’s poor that bear the brunt of biodiversity loss, as they are usually most directly reliant on functioning ecosystem services ( 14 ).
In spite of successful efforts to reduce emissions and a decreasing share in the global total, European societies continue to be major emitters of greenhouse gases (Chapter2).
Many of the countries that are most vulnerable to climate change are outside the European continent, others are our direct neighbours( 3 ).