He also outlines how scientific authority in medicine, psychology, and criminology cannot help but create delinquents.
And so, an omnipresent system of societal discipline and punishment continues.
These constructions can only happen when people are constantly observed and when they internalize ruling class principles in regards to their body, what activities are “natural,” what is expected of them in the future, and what they can do as a group.
(Respectively, Foucault calls these “individualities”: cellular, organic, genetic, and combinatory).
Long considered an effective, and even necessary, means of socialising children, physical punishment has been revealed to be a predictor of a wide range of negative developmental outcomes.
The extent of agreement in the research literature on this issue is unusual in the social sciences.Modern institutions could more easily train, observe, and control people when they dealt with them as parts.Through modern institutions, people are turned into “docile bodies.” This arrangement is ideal for the industrial age, where people started working in factories and sat in more classrooms.Foucault says this is why “gentle punishments” like chain gains went away: this Panopticon model was far more efficient.In the final part, Prison, Foucault demonstrates how prisons are part of a “carceral system” that also operates in factories, hospitals, schools, and the military–really every part of modern society.To illustrate his assertion, Foucault references the twinned progression of scientific knowledge and advances in technology.Historically, knowledge is the same thing as power.Knowledge cannot exist without a more powerful force to explain its implications.Foucault unpacks how these larger forces “explain” individuals to themselves.It was particularly useful because prisoners could never be sure if they were being watched, which encouraged them, even in their private moments, to perform the values of the dominant class; or in Foucauldian terms, the unequal gaze triggered the internalization of disciplinary individualities and, ultimately, a docile body.The public was less likely to break the law if it always thought it was being watched.