To assess maternal and infant health, public health researchers and development experts report the maternal mortality rate (MMR) and the infant mortality rate (IMR). mortality rates do not compare favorably with those of other developed countries, disaggregating data by maternal race reveals a different picture.
To assess maternal and infant health, public health researchers and development experts report the maternal mortality rate (MMR) and the infant mortality rate (IMR). mortality rates do not compare favorably with those of other developed countries, disaggregating data by maternal race reveals a different picture.Tags: Pietermaritzburg+Newspaper ArchivesEssay On African American MusicA Modest Proposal Satire Analysis EssayEssay On Volleyball RulesLiterature Essay Example7 Eleven Business PlanThesis Sahib - Loved Ones
Neither of these can fully account for the racial disparity in maternal or infant mortality.
Smoking and drug abuse are risk behaviors that strongly predict preterm delivery, low birth weight, However, several studies show that African American women are less likely to report smoking cigarettes than are non-Hispanic white women, and they are also no more likely to abuse alcohol or drugs during their pregnancy.
It is racism, not race itself, that threatens the lives of African American women and infants.
Protecting the health of mothers and infants is a critical measure of a country’s development.
Although African American women are more likely than non-Hispanic white women to experience these interrelated risk factors, research shows that this greater likelihood does not fully account for the racial gap in outcomes; rather, these disparities stem from racial and gender discrimination over the life span of these women.
Numerous studies show that after controlling for education and socioeconomic status, African American women remain at higher risk for maternal and infant mortality.Shortly after giving birth to her son in August 2017, 27-year-old activist and Black Lives Matter icon Erica Garner suffered her first heart attack.Garner, who entered the public eye in 2014 after a police officer choked her father to death, had an enlarged heart.Although all deaths are tragic, Erica Garner’s death illuminates a devastating problem in the United States: African American mothers are dying at three to four times the rate of non-Hispanic white mothers, African American women of all backgrounds—including Garner and Williams—share experiences of racial and gender discrimination.A growing body of research suggests that stress induced by this discrimination plays a significant role in maternal and infant mortality.Current health status, health history, stress, and experiences of racism may contribute to maternal and infant mortality when coupled with lower-quality prenatal care.Although numerous physical health behaviors and conditions influence maternal and birth outcomes, behavioral interventions often focus on two behaviors: smoking and drug abuse and obesity.Like maternal mortality, infant mortality in the United States sharply declined over the 20th century.However, the racial gap in infant mortality rates has been present since these data started being collected by the government and hospitals more than 100 years ago, and it has not significantly changed in more than 50 years.Indeed, one study showed that after controlling for income; gestational age; and maternal age and health status, the odds of dying from pregnancy or delivery complications were almost three times higher for African American women than they were for non-Hispanic white women.Relatedly, another analysis, controlling for the same factors, showed that college-educated African American women were almost three times more likely to lose their infants than their similarly educated non-Hispanic white peers.